Home buyers want assurances that someone will correct defects in construction to make it conform to what they bargained for. In the sale of new homes, these assurances usually come in the form of the builder’s warranties. Homeowners must make serious decisions about whether to go under contract, go through with closing and allow a year or so to go by without making a warranty claim. The purpose of this article is to identify some of the top misconceptions buyers have about home builder warranties that interfere with good decision-making.
1. “My Warranty Coverage is Only Shown in the Packet of Contract Documents.”
In fact, warranties can also arise out of legislation or court decision precedents. Warranty law is a solution to the problem that a buyer can inspect something, pay for it and later discover that the construction was materially defective.
In Virginia, the courts traditionally ruled that in every contract with a builder there is an implied warranty of good workmanship unless the terms of the contract provided specific disclaimers or modifications. This rule helped consumers by requiring that the contractor would have to stand behind their work unless there was some fine print otherwise. Builders responded by having their attorneys write-up those warranty documents that can range from a paragraph to over 50 pages. The Virginia General Assembly observed that contractors were finding ways to get buyers through real estate closings on properties that did not conform to contracts in spite of the efforts of local building code enforcement officials and the buyer’s inspections. They passed legislation that creates implied warranties of quality workmanship that arise in the sale of each new home construction.
Unfortunately, both contractors and homeowners are often unaware of these statutory warranties and their relationship with the written contract documents including the written limited warranties. Homeowners find it much easier to negotiate with their builder if they know the full extent of their warranty rights from review of the agreements and statutes.
2. “My Neighbor Couldn’t Make Use out of Her Warranty, So I’m Also Out of Luck.”
Tragically, many homeowners allow their warranty rights to expire without preserving their right to exercise them. Builders, neighbors, building code officials and inspectors can give useless or misleading legal advice. Because the contract documents vary builder-to-builder and the implied warranty laws vary by state, it is impossible to give a general summary that can be applied in every case. Understanding warranty coverage requires compiling the contract and warranty paperwork and state statutes. Usually, the basic warranty lasts for only one year.
3. “My Builder is the Best Person to Ask about what they are Required to Fix.”
Builders know that the courts will not expect them to continue making warranty repairs to one house for as long as they continue to be in business. To the extent a builder is still working on a house they have already sold, they aren’t making any new money. Contractors sometimes use written warranty paperwork to confuse or limit the buyer’s warranty rights at the time of sale. The builder’s warranty too often is used as a sales tactic to assuage nervous buyers concerned about construction defects. If the homeowner complains to the builder about construction defects after move-in, some contractors try to keep them occupied with inspections and ineffectual repairs.
If the builder’s employees are frequently at the house, the owner probably won’t invite independent inspectors, experts or other contractors who might diagnose serious warranty claims and help the owner protect their rights. Once the owner starts to lose confidence in the builder or the warranty period is approaching, the owner needs the help of independent experts.
4. “The Only Construction Defects Worth Focusing on are the Ones I Look at Everyday.”
Homeowners frequently focus on the types of construction defects that they notice everyday. Defects in drywall, painting, grout, trim and other finish work can add up to thousands of dollars in repair costs, but they may not be the most substantial defects made by the builder.
Water may be leaking into the house. Major systems such as roofing, plumbing, electrical, HVAC, etc. may require extensive repairs or replacement if not properly addressed during a warranty period. In order to properly diagnose these problems, the owner must coordinate investigation with inspectors, experts or other contractors who are independent from their builder. Every homeowner owes it to themselves to know the truth about the condition of their house.
5. My Realtor, Mortgage Broker, Settlement Agent or Builder Recommended This Home Inspector, so they must be fine.”
In hiring a third party inspector to help with a home purchase, the independence of the home inspector is just as important as their competence. Most professionals in a real estate transaction are only paid when the deal goes to closing. If a home inspector or other participant does find a defect that would cause a deal to not go through or be substantially delayed, the other professionals won’t want them to be involved in the next sale.
Most home inspectors know enough about houses to provide a report that is a great help to the buyer. What’s important to the buyer is having an inspector who isn’t allied with the people being paid out of settlement. That way, the buyer knows he is working for her.
A homeowner should not rely solely on the contractor to clarify what their warranty rights are. It’s better to find out from qualified inspectors, engineers or other contractors what, if anything is wrong with your house. A qualified attorney can help determine whether those defects are legally covered before time runs out. If the closing on the new home was less than 12 months ago, there is a strong chance the owner may be entitled to repairs or financial compensation from the builder for failure to make the house conform to the warranty.
Mann v. Clowser, 190 Va. 887, 59 S.E.2d 78 (1950)